Adam Blatner, M.D.

Revised February 17, 2011    (Please also see my comments on "Scriptology")

Also sections near the bottom on:
  • codes
  • the history of numbers
  • lettering, typography, calligraphy
  • literacy
  • Mayan

  • Adkins, Lesley & Roy. (2000). The keys of Egypt: The obsession to decipher Egyptian hieroglyphs. New York: HarperCollins.

    Aguirre, Manuel. (1961). La escritura en el mundo. Madrid: Libreria Reliex. (mongol, semphore, berber, p 123, lolo)

    Alexandre, Pierre. (1972). Languages and Language in Black Africa. (Translat. by F.A. Leary). Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.

    Allen, Julie D. et al. (2007). The Unicode Standard 5.0. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

    Alphabets & Scripts of Ancient Times & Other Lands. (1969). Berlin: Bundesdruckeim.

    Astle, T. (1803). The origin and progress of writing. London: Benley. (Reprinted in 1973 by the AMS Press in New York.)

    Baines, John; Bennet, Joh; & Houston, Stephen. (2008). The disappearance of writing systems: perspectives on literacy and communication. London: Equinox Publishing.

    Ballhorn, F. (1861). Grammatography: A manual of reference to the alphabets of ancient and modern languages. London: Trubner & Co.

    Baurmann, J., Günther, KB, & Knoop, U. (1988). Aspekte von Schrift und Schriftlichkeit. Hildesheim, Germany: Georg Olms Verlag.

    Bazerman, Charles (Ed.). (2008). Handbook of research on writing: history, society, school, individual, text. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates / Taylor & Francis.

    Berlitz, Charles. (1982). Native Tongues. New York: Grosset & Dunlap.

    Bernal, Martin. (1990). Cadmean letters. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns.

    Blatner, Adam. (1989). Commentary: A call for "Scriptology." Visible Language, 22(4), 415.

    Bliss, C.K. (1965) Semantography (Blissymbolics): A logical writing for an illogical world (2nd Ed.). Sydney, Australia: Semantography Publications.

    Bodmer, Frederick. (1944). The loom of language. New York: W.W. Norton & Co.

    Bonfante, Larissa. (1990). Etruscan. Berkeley: University of California Press.

    Brown, Michelle P. (1998). The British Library guide to writing and scripts: history and technique. Toronto: University of Toronto Press/ London: The British Library.

    Buhler-Oppenheim, Kristin. (1971). Signs, Brands, Marks. New York: Communication Arts Books.

    Burns, Alfred. (1989). The power of the written word: The role of literacy in the history of Western civilization. New York: Peter Lang.

    Canepari, Luciano. (1983). Phonetic notation. Venice ("Venezia), Italy: Libreria Editrice Cafoscarina.

    Carter, M. L. & Schoville, K. N. (Eds.) (1984). Sign, symbol, script: An exhibition on the origins of writing and the alphabet. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.

    Casson, Lionel. (October, 1988). howandwhypunctuationevercametobeinvented. Smithsonian, 19(7), 216.

    Castillo-Gomez, Antonio. (2006). Entre la pluma y la pared: historia social de la escritura. Madrid: Ediciones Akal. (in Spanish, mainly about the history of Writing in Spain, focusing on the medieval through around the 17th century)

    Chadwick, John. (1990a). Linear B and related scripts. Berkeley: University of California Press.

    Chadwick, John. (1990b). The decipherment of Linear B. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

    Chappell, Warren. (1975). The living alphabet. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia.

    Chiera, Edward (1938). They wrote on clay. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Christin, Anne-Marie (Ed.). (2002). A history of writing: from hieroglyph to multi-media. Paris?: Flammarion.
       This new large anthology has many interesting articles. Translated from the French (Histoire de l'ecriture), first published in 2001.

    Claiborne, Robert (1974). The birth of writing. Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books.

    Cleator, P.E. (1961). Lost languages. New York: John Day.

    Clodd, Edward. (1904). The story of the alphabet. New York: McClure, Phillips & Co.

    Cohen, Marcel. (1958). La grande invention de l'ecriture et son evolution. Paris: Imprimiere Nationale.

    Coulmas, F. & Ehlich, K. (1983) Writing in focus. (Trends in Linguistics--Monograph 24), ed. by W.Winter. Berlin/New York: Mouton.

    Coulmas, Florian. (1989). The writing systems of the world. Oxford & New York: Basil Blackwell.

    Coulmas, Florian. (2003). Writing systems: an introduction to their linguistic analysis. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

    Dahlberg, Wolfgang. (1984). The alphabet: Pattern, history and perspective of the earliest classification system. International Classification, 11(1), 13-20.

    Daniels, Peter T. (2001). Writing systems (Chapter 3, pp 43-80). In Mark Aronoff & Janie Rees-Miller (Eds.), Handbook of linguistics. Malden, MA:  Blackwell Publisher.

    Daniels, Peter T. & Bright, William (Eds.). (1996). The World's Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press. (Clearly the most comprehensive book on the subject.)

    Davies, W.V. (1988). Egyptian hieroglyphs. Berkeley: University of California Press.

    Dean, J.L. (1991). Alphabet Chart. Bradford, NH: Author.

    DeFrancis, John. (1989). Visible speech: The diverse oneness of writing systems. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

    Delpire, Robert (Ed.). (1961). L'ecriture. Paris: Encyclopedie Essentielle.

    DeKerckhove, Derrick & Lumsden, Charles J. (Eds.) (1988). The alphabet and the brain: The lateralization of writing. Berlin:Springer-Verlag

    Diringer, David. (1968). The Alphabet: A key to the history of mankind. (Vols. 1 & 2) (3rd Ed.). New York: Funk & Wagnalls. (or, London: Hutchinson).

    Diringer, David. (1977). A history of the alphabet. Old Woking, Surrey, England: Unwin Brothers, Ltd.

    Doblehofer, Ernst. (1961). Voices in stone: The decipherment of ancient scripts and writings. New York: Viking.

    Donaldson, Timothy. (2008). Shapes for sounds: why alphabets look like they do...  New York: Mary Batty Publisher.  (A beautiful book!!)

    Driver, Godfrey Rolles.. (1976). Semitic writing: From pictograph to alphabet. (Revised ed.) London: Oxford University Press.

    Drucker, Johanna. (1995). The alphabetic labyrinth: The letters in history and imagination. London: Thames & Hudson.

    Drucker, Johanna. (1998). Figuring the word: Essays on books, writing, and visual poetics. New York: Granary Books.

    Fabre, Maurice. (1963). A history of communication. New York: Hawthorne. (Vol.9 of series, History of Science & Invention)

    Fairbank, Alfred. (1970). The story of handwriting: Origins and development. New York: Watson-Guptill.

    Firmage, Richard A. (1993). The alphabet abecedarium: Some notes on letters. Boston: David R. Godine.

    Fischer, Steven Roger. (2001). A history of writing. London: Reaktion Books.

    Fisher, Leonard E. (197?). Letter Art. New York: Four Winds Press.

    Fisher, Leonard E. (1982). Number Art. New York: Four Winds Press.

    Fisher, Leonard E. (1985). Symbol Art. New York: Four Winds Press.

    Fishman, Joshua (Ed.) (1977). Advances in the creation and revision of writing systems. The Hague, Netherlands: Mouton & Co.

    Foreman, Grant. (1938) Sequoyah. (Vol.16, The Civilization of the American Indian Series.) Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.

    Fraenkel, Gerd. (1965). Writing systems. Boston: Ginn & Co.

    Friedrich, Johannes. (1966). Geschichte der Schrift. Heidelberg, Germany: Carl Winter/Universitats Verlag.

    Frutiger, Adrian. (1989). Signs and Symbols: Their design and meaning. (Transl. by Andrew Bluhm.) New York:Van Nostrand Reinhold.

    Fry, Edmund. (1970). Pantographia. Los Angeles: Sherwin & Freutel. (A facsimile of a book first published in 1799.)

    Gabrial, Brian (2008). History of writing technologies (Chapter 2, pp. 23-33). In Bazerman anthology, see above.

    Ganguly, Subrata. (2004). Symbol, script and writing: from petrogram to printing and further... Dehli: Sharada. (ISBN 81-85934-07-0). (At end, an appeal for the conversion of the many different scripts in India to a Roman script.)

    Gaur, Albertine. (1984). A history of writing. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.

    Gaur, Alberine. (2000). Literacy and the politics of writing. Bristol, UK; Portland, OR: Intellect Books.

    Gelb, I.J. (1963, 1974). A study of writing. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Gerstner, Karl. (1974). Compendium for literates. Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press.

    Gilyarevsky, R.S. & Grivnin, VS (1970). Languages identification guide. Moscow: Nauka Publishing

    Glassner, Jean-Jacques. (2003). The invention of cuneiform: writing in Sumer. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

    Glück, Helmut. (1987). Schrift und Schriftlichkeit: Eine Sprach-und Kulturwissenschaftlich Studie. Stuttgart: J.B. Metzlersche Verlagsbuchhandlung.

    Gnanadesikan, Amalia E. (2009). The writing revolution: cuneiform to the internet. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

    Godin, Seth (1993). The smiley dictionary: Cool things to do with your keyboard. Berkeley, CA: Peachpit Press.

    Goody, Jack. (See books on Literacy)

    Gordon, Cyrus H. (1982). Forgotten scripts: Their ongoing discovery and decipherment  (Revised and enlarged from earlier 1982 edition). New York: Basic Books.

    Gunther, Hartmut & Ludwig, Otto (Eds). (1994). Writing and its use: An interdisciplin-ary handbook of international research. Berlin & New York: Walter de Gruyter.

    Haarmann, Harald. (1998). Universal-geschichte der Schrift. Frankfurt: Campus Verlag.

    Haas, W. (Ed.) (1969). Alphabets for English. Manchester, England: Manchester University Press.

    Haas, W. (Ed.) (1976). Writing without letters. Totowa, NJ: Rowman & Littlefield.

    Harris, Roy. (1986). The origin of writing. London: Gerald Duckworth & Co., Ltd.

    Havelock, Eric A. (1976). Origins of western literacy. Toronto: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education.

    Healy, John F. (1991). The early alphabet. Berkeley: University of California Press.

    Helfman, Elizabeth S. (1981). Blissymbolics: Speaking without speech. New York: Elsevier/Nelson Books.

    Helfman, Elizabeth S. (197?). Signs & Symbols around the world.

    Holmes, Ruth B. & Smith, Betty S. (1978). Beginning Cherokee. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.

    Hofsinde, Robert. (196?). Indian picture writing. New York: William Morrow & Co. (p90, The Cree Alphabet).

    Hofstadter, Douglas R. (1985). Metamagical themas: Questing for the essence of mind and pattern. New York: Basic Books.

    Hofstadter, Douglas R. (1988). Doughalese & the Semiotic Mystery. Eureka, 48, 57-64. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Mathematical Society.

    Hofstadter, Douglas. (1995). Letter spirit, in fluid concepts and creative analogies: Computer models of the fundamental mechanisms of thought. New York: Basic Books/HarperCollins. pp 401-466

    Hooker, J.T. (Ed.). (1990). Reading the past: Ancient writing from cuneiform to the alphabet. Berkeley: University of California Press.

    Hoskins, R.F. & Meredith-Owens, G.M. (1966). A handbook of Asian scripts. London: The Trustees of the British Museum.

    Houston, Stephen D. (Ed.). (2004). The first writing: Script invention as history and process. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

    Humez, Alexander & Nicholas. (1981). Alpha to Omega: The life and times of the Greek alphabet. Boston: David R. Godine.

    Humez, Alexander & Nicholas. (1985). A B C et cetera: The life and times of the Roman alphabet. Boston: David R. Godine.

    Humez, Alexander & Nicholas. (2008). On the dot: the speck that changed the world. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press.

    Hutchinson, James. (1983). Letters. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

    Illich, Ivan & Sanders, Barry. (1988). The alphabetization of the popular mind. San Francisco: North Point Press.

    International Phonetic Association. (1999).  Handbook of the IPA: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

    Irwin, Keith Gordon. (1961). The romance of writing. New York: Viking.

    Jean, Georges. (1992--English translation). Writing: The story of alphabets and scripts. New York: Discoveries/Harry N. Abrams.

    Jackson, Donald. (1981). The story of writing. New York: Taplinger Publishing Co. (parker pen co.)

    Jensen, Hans. (1969). Sign, symbol, & script: An account of man's efforts to write (3rd Ed.). New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons.

    Kannaiyan, I. (1956). Scripts in and around India. Madras: Madras Government Museum.

    Katzner, Kenneth. (1986). The languages of the world (Revised). London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

    Kellogg, Rhoda. (1970). Analyzing children's art. Palo Alto: National Press Books.

    Kim-Renaud, Young-Key. (2009).  Korean: An Essential Grammar. London: Routledge. (She is also the author of other books.),

    Kim-Renaud, Young-Key. (Ed.) (1997) The Korean Alphabet: Its History and Structure. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. (The editor herself wrote the Introduction and  some chapters.)

    Klausner, Janet. (1993). Sequoyah's gift: A portrait of the Cherokee leader. New York: HarperCollins.

    Kluh, J.M. (1922). The etymologic cipher alphabet. Chicago: J.M. Kluh. (in Perry Castaneda Library at U.T.Austin)

    LeGuin, Ursula. (1985). Always coming home. New York: Harper & Row. (Invented the "Kesh" alphabet, in Appendix of the novel.)

    Logan, Robert K. (1986). The alphabet effect. New York: William Morrow & Co.

    Machet, Anne (Ed.). (1982). Ecriture, typographie, pedagogie: Proceedings of the International Center for Applied Linguistics. Besancon, France: L'Ecole des Beaux-Arts de Besancon.

    Man, John. (2000). Alpha Beta: How 26 Letters Shaped the Western World. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

    Manguel, Alberto. (1996). A history of reading. New York: Viking/Penguin.

    Martin, Henri-Jean. (1999). The history and power of writing. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press. (First published in France in 1988.)

    Martlew, Margaret. (1983). The psychology of written language: Developmental and educational perspectives. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

    Mason, William. (1920). History of the art of writing. New York: The McMillan Co.

    McGrath, Alister. (2001). In the beginning: The story of the King James Bible. New York: Doubleday/Random House.

    Mercer, Samuel A.B. (1951). The origin of writing and our alphabet. London: Luzac & Co.

    Mercer, Samuel A. (1961). Assyrian grammar. New York: Frederick Ungar.

    Miller, Jonathan. (1971). Marshall McLuhan. New York: Viking.

    Moore, Hyatt (Ed). (1991). The alphabet makers. Huntington Beach, CA: Summer Institute of Linguistics.

    Moorhouse, A.C. (1953). The triumph of the alphabet: A history of writing. New York: Henry Schuman.

    Moran, Hugh A. & Kelley, David H. (1969). The alphabet & the ancient calendar signs. Palo Alto, CA: Daily Press.

    Morison, Stanley. (1972). Politics and script: Aspects of authority and freedom. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

    Moss, Miriam. (1988). Language and writing. New York: The Bookwright Press. (Children's book)

    Myller, Rolf. (1980). Symbols and their meaning. New York: Atheneum.

    Nakanishi, Akira. (1980).Writing systems of the world: Alphabets, syllabaries, pictograms. Rutland, VT: Chas. E. Tuttle.

    Nasr, Seyyed H. (1987). The spritual message of Islamic calligraphy. Albany: SUNY Press.

    Naveh, Joseph. (1982). Early history of the alphabet. Jerusalem: The Magnes Press/ Hebrew University.

    Nilsen, Don L. & A.P. (1978). Language play. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.

    Noel, Ruth S. (1974, 1980). The languages of Tolkien's Middle-Earth. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

    Norman, James. (1975). Ancestral Voices: Decoding ancient languages. New York: Four Winds Press.

    Ogg, Oscar. (1940). An alphabet sourcebook. New York: Harper & Brothers.

    Ogg, Oscar. (1971). The 26 letters. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell.

    Ong, Walter J. (1986). (see literacy)

    Olson, David R. (1994). The world on paper. The conceptual and cognitive implications of writing and reading. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

    Oppenheim, Joanne. (1979). Sequoyah: Cherokee hero. Mahwah, NJ: Troll Associates.

    Ouaknin, Marc-Alain. (1999). Mysteries of the alphabet: The origins of writing. New York: Abbeville Press.

    Page, R.I. (1987). Runes: Reading the past (Vol.4). Berkeley: University of California Press/ The Trustees of the British Museum.

    Petrucci, Armand. 1993. Public Lettering: Script, Power & culture. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

    Poortvliet, Rien & Huygen, Wil. (1982). Secrets of the Gnomes. New York: Harry N. Abrams/ Ballantine. (Suggests a gnomes' "red hat" alphabet that was the basis for cuneiform.)

    Pope, Maurice. (1975). The story of archaeological decipherment. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.

    Powell, Barry B. (2009). Writing: theory and history of the technology of civilization.  Chichester UK: Wiley-Blackwell

    Pullum, Geoffrey K. & Ladusaw, William A. (1986). Phonetic symbol guide. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Rahi, Ishwar Chandra. (1977). World alphabets: Their origin & development. Katra, Allahabad, India: Bharagava Printing.

    Rees, Ennis. (1968). The little Greek alphabet book. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

    Reisner, R. (1971). Graffiti: Two thousand years of wall writing. New York: Cowles Books.

    Rendell, D.& K. (1979). The ancient world: Early writing from Mesopotamia and Egypt, 3100 B.C.--800 A.D. (a catalog). Newton, MA: D. & K. Rendell.

    Reynolds, Henry J. (1938). The world's oldest writings. Chicago: The Antiquitas Corp.

    Reynolds, Lloyd J. (1979). Straight impressions. Woolwich, ME: TBW Books.

    Robinson, Andrew. (1995). The story of writing. London: Thames & Hudson.

    Robinson, Andrew. (2002). Lost languages: The enigma of the world's undeciphered scripts. New York: Nevraumont/McGraw-Hill.  (Nice references!)

    Rodgers, Carl T. (1965?) Braille. New York: American Foundation for the Blind.

    Rogers, Henry. (2005). Writing systems: a linguistic approach. Oxford, UK, & Malden, MA: Blackwell

    Röhr, Heinz Markus. (1994).
    Writing: Its evolution and relation to speech. Bochum, Germany: Universitätsverlag

    Rovin, Jeff. (1981). Transgalactic guide to solar system M-17. New York: Perigee/G.P. Putnam's.  (Some imagined alphabets from other planets)

    Sacks, David. (2003). Language visible: unraveling the mystery of the alphabet from a to z. New York: Broadway Books.    (A very nice and current review!)

    Saljo, Roger (Ed.). (1988). The written word: Studies in literate thought and action. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

    Samoyault, Tiphaine. (1998). Alphabetical order: How the alphabet began. New York: Viking/Penguin.

    Sampson, Geoffrey. (1985). Writing systems: A linguistic introduction. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

    Sass, Benjamin (2005). The alphabet at the turn of the millennium: The west semitic alphabet ca. 1150 - 805 BCE --the antiquity of the Arabian, Greek, and Phrygian alphabets. Tel Aviv: ? press.

    Schmandt-Besserat, Denise. (1992). Before writing. Austin: University of Texas Press.

    Shmandt-Besserat, D. & Erard, Michael (2008). Origins and forms of writing (Chapter 1, pp 7-22). In Bazerman’s anthology (see above).

    Scinto, Leonard F.M. (1986). Written language and psychological development. Orlando, FL: Academic Press.

    Scott, Kim (Ed.). (1981). Inversions: A catalog of calligraphic cartwheels. Peterborough, NH: BYTE Books (McGraw Hill).

    Scribner, S. & Cole, M. (1981). The psychology of literacy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press

    Sears, Peter. (1986). Secret writing: Keys to the mysteries of reading and writing. New York: Teachers & Writers Collaborative.

    Senner, Wayne M. (Ed.). (1989). The origins of writing. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.

    Siso Young-o-sa. (1983). The Korean language. (Korean National committee for UNESCO). Arch Cape, OR: Pace International Research Inc.

    Sloboda, John. (1981) The uses of space in music notation. Visible Language, 15(1), 86-110.

    Smalley, William A. et al. (1964). Orthography studies, Vol 6. Articles on new writing systems. London: United Bible Society.

    Sommer, F.E. (1942). The Arabic writing in five lessons. New York: Frederick Ungar.

    Spencer, Herbert. (1968). The visible word. New York: Visual Communications Books/Hastings House.

    Spencer, Herbert. (1969). Pioneers of modern typography. New York: Hastings House/ Visual Communications Books.

    Stevens, John. (1981). Sacred calligraphy of the East. Boulder, CO: Shambhala.

    Stiebner, Erhardt D. & Leonhard, Walter. (1977). Bruckmann's handbuch der schrift. Munich (Munchen), Germany: F. Bruckmann

    Stryker-Rodda, Harriet. (1986). Understanding colonial handwriting. Baltimore: Geneological Publishing.

    Swann, Donald, & Tolkien, J.R.R. (1978). The road goes ever on: A song cycle (2nd ed., revised). New York: Houghton-Mifflin.

    Thornton, Tamara Plakins. (1996). Handwriting in America: A cultural history. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

    Top, Alsexander. (1603/1971?). The olive leaf. (A facsimile) Menston, England: The Scolar Press, Ltd.

    Tschichold, Jan. (1948). An illustrated history of writing and lettering. New York: Columbia University Press.

    Tsuen-Hsuin, Tsien. (1962). Written on bamboo and silk: The beginnings of chinese books and inscriptions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Turbayne, C.M. (1983?). Metaphors for the mind. In R. Rudner & I. Scheffler (Eds.), Logic & art: Essays in honor of Nelson Goodman. ? Publisher

    Ullman, B.L. (1963). Ancient writing and its influence. New York: Cooper Square Publishers.

    UNESCO. (1965). The art of writing. Germany: United Nations Educational, Social, and Cultural Organization.

    Vachek, Josef. (1989). Written language revisited. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. (functional linguistics Prague school.

    Vandendorpe, Christian. (2009). From papyrus to hypertext: toward the universal digital library. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. (Translated from the French by Phyllis Aronoff & Howard Scott.)

    Walker, C.B.F. (1987). Cuneiform: Reading the past (Vol.3). Berkeley: University of California Press/ The Trustees of the British Museum
    Watt, W.C. (Ed.). (1994). Writing systems and cognition: Perspectives from psychology, physiology, linguistics, and semiotics. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

    Welman, William S. (1973). African language structure. Berkeley: University of California Press.

    Wemyss, Stanley. (1950). The languages of the world. Philadelphia: Author.

    Whiteman, M.F. (Ed.) (1981). Writing: The nature, development, and teaching of written communication. Hillsdale, NJ: L. Erlbaum.

    Whittick, Arnold. (1961). Symbols, signs, and their meaning. Newton, MA. Charles T. Branford Co.

    Wolf, Maryanne. (2007). Proust and the squid: the story and science of the reading brain. New York: HarperCollins.

    Written Language & Literacy. A journal begun around 1998. Published by John Benjamins Publishing Company. Editor: William Bright.

    Zapf, Hermann (1970). About alphabets: Some marginal notes on type design. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.


    Bielewicz, Julian A. (1976). Secret languages: Communicating in codes and ciphers. New York: Elsevier/Nelson.

    Brumbaugh, Robert S. (Ed.) (1978). The most mysterious manuscript: The Voynich "Roger Bacon" cipher manuscript. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. 1500s, 200 pages magic & scientific allusions.

    Butler, William S. & Keeny, L. Douglas. (2001). Secret messages: Concealment, codes, and other types of ingenious communication. New York: Simon & Schuster.

    Friedman, W.F. (ed.) (1976). Cryptography and cryptanalysis. (Articles from journal, 1925-1940s). Laguna Hills, CA: Aegean Park Press. (po box 3837, zip 92653

    Garden, Nancy. (1981). The kids' code and cipher book. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

    Gardner, Martin. (1972). Codes, ciphers and secret writing. New York? Dover)

    Haldane, R.A. (1976). The hidden world. New York: St. Martin's Press.

    Janeczko, Paul B. (1984). Loads of codes and secret ciphers. New York: MacMillan.

    Kahn, David. (1967). The codebreakers: The story of secret writing. New York: MacMillan. (thick book.)

    O’Hare, Jeffrey A. (1997). Secret codes and hidden messages. Honesdale, PA: Boyds Mills Press. (Kid’s book).

    Peterson, John. (1966). How to write codes and send secret messages. New York: Scholastic Book Services.

    Pickover, Clifford A. (2000). Cryptorunes : codes and secret writing. Rohnert Park, CA: Pomegranate. 

    Way, Peter. (1977). Codes and ciphers. London: Aldus Books.

    Wrixon, Fred B. (1989). Codes, ciphers, and secret languages. London: Harrap Books.


    Ray, John. (2007). The Rosetta Stone and the rebirth of ancient Egypt. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.


    Gullberg, Jan. (1997). Mathematics from the birth of numbers. New York: W.W. Norton.

    Ifrah, Georges. (1985). From one to zero: A universal history of numbers. New York: Viking/Penguin.

    Ifrah, Georges. (2000). The universal history of numbers: From prehistory to the invention of the computer. (Translated from the French by D. Bellos et al.). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

    Menninger, Karl. (1977). Number words and number symbols: A cultural history of numbers (Revised Ed.) Cambridge, MA: M.I.T.Press.


    Baron, Naomi S. (1981). Speech, writing, & sign: A functional view of linguistic representation. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

    Baumann, Gerd (Ed.). (1986). The written word: Literacy in transition. Oxford: Clarendon.

    Bowman, Alan K. & Woolf. (1994). Literacy and power in the ancient world. Cambridge University Press.

    Finnegan, Ruth. (1988). Literacy and orality: Studies in the technology of communication. New York: Basil Blackwell.

    Goody, Jack. (1977). The domestication of the savage mind. Cambridge, Enland: Cambridge University Press. (Note esp, chap 5, "What is in a list?", pp 74-111.)

    Goody, Jack. (1986). The logic of writing and the organization of society. Cambridge (Great Britain): Cambridge University Press.

    Goody, Jack. (1987). The interface between the written and the oral. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

    Goody, Jack. (2000). The power of the written tradition. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.

    Ong, Walter J. (1982). Orality and literacy. New York: Methuen.

    Olson, David R. (1994). The world on paper. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

    Stephens, Mitchell. (1998). The rise of the image, the fall of the word.  New York: Oxford University Press. 198 Madison Ave. Ny 10016.

    Lettering, Typography, Calligraphy:

    Anderson, Donald M. (1969/1992). Calligraphy: The art of written forms. New York: Dover.

    Baker, Arthur. (1975). Calligraphy. New York: Dover.

    Biegeleisen, J. I. (1982). Handbook of typefaces and lettering. New York: Arco

    Blumenthal, Joseph. (1982). Typographic years: A printer’s journey through a half century 1925-1975. New York: Frederic C. Beil

    Folsom, Rose. (1990). The calligrapher’s dictionary. London: Thames & Hudson.

    Gaur, Albertine. (1994). A history of calligraphy. New York: Cross River Press.

    Gordon, Maggie. (1974). Alphabets & Images: Inspiration from letterforms. London: B.T. Batsford.

    Goudy, Frederic W. (1942). The alphabet and elements of lettering. (Revised Ed.) Berkely, CA: University of California Press. (1st in 1918)

    Grafton, Carol B.(Ed.) (1982?). Bizarre and ornamental alphabets. New York: Dover.

    Gray, E.? (1982). Lettering as drawing. New York: Taplinger/ Pentalic. Calligraphy Review
    Gray, Nicolete. (1986). A history of lettering. Boston: David R. Godine.

    Haley, Allan. (1995),. Alphabet: The history, evolution, and design of the lettes we use today. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications/ BPI.

    Hornung, Clarence. (?197?). Lettering from A to Z. New York: Wm. Penn Publishing.

    Larcher, Jean. (1976). Fantastic alphabets: 24 original alphabets. New York: Dover.

    Jury, David. (2008). History of typography (Chapter 3, pp. 35-63). In Bazerman’s anthology, see above.

    Lai, T.C. (1973). Chinese calligraphy: An introduction. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

    Larcher, Jean. (1976). Fantastic alphabets: 24 original alphabets. New York: Dover.

    Lawther, Gail & Christopher. (1987). You can learn lettering and calligraphy. Cincinnati, OH: North Light Books.

    Long, Jean. (1987). The art of Chinese calligraphy. Dorset, NY: Blandford/Sterling.

    Meggs, Philip B. (1983). A history of typography. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

    Mote, Frederick W. & Chu, Hung-lam. (1989). Calligraphy and the East Asian book. Boston: Shambhala.

    Nasr, Seyyed H. (1987). The spritual message of Islamic calligraphy. Albany: SUNY Press.

    Nesbitt, Alexander. (1957). The history & technique of lettering. New York: Dover.

    Potter, Tony. (1987). Lettering & Typography. London: Usborne.

    Schimmel, Anne Marie. (1983). Calligraphy and Islamic culture. New York: N.Y.U. Press.

    Shepherd, Margaret. (1984). Calligraphy now: New light on traditional letters. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons.

    Solomon, Martin. (1994). The art of typography: An introduction to Typo.icon.ography. New York: Art Direction Book Co.

    Wong, Frederick. (1980). The complete calligrapher. New York: Watson-Guptill.


    Benson, Elizabeth B. & Griffin, Billet. (1988). Maya Iconography. Princeton University Press.

    Coe, Michael D. & Van Stone, Mark. (2001). Reading the Maya glyphs. New York: Thames & Hudson.

    Coulter, Laurie. (2001 ). Secrets in stone: All about Maya hieroglyphs.  Boston: Little, Brown & Co./ Madison Press.

    Houston, S.D. (1989). Maya glyphs. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press/British Museum.

    Marcus, Joyce. (February, 1980). Zapotec writing. Scientific American, 242(2), 50-64.

    Stuart, David, & Houston, Stephen D. (August, 1989). The Mayan Writing. Scientific American, 261(2), 82-89.

    Thompson, J.E.S. (1971). Maya hieroglyphic writing: An introduction. Tulsa?: University of Oklahoma Press.

    Miscellaneous Notes:

    Conkey, Margaret W. & Hastorf, Christine A. (1990). The use of style in archaeology. Cambridge U. Press.

    Deely, John. (1990). Basics of semiotics. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

    Cherry, Colin. (1957). On human communication. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

    ref Wilson, Tom. (1984). Ziggy Cartoon about pet from foreign country has pet speaking in symbols.

    Geisel, Theo. On Beyond Zebra.

    Rockwell, Gail (illustrator). (1974). Sgt. Buck Slasher: Action Packed Battle Comic. In Tom Rockwell, The Portmanteau Book.

    In Russian:
    Loukotka, Chestmir, (1950) "Razvitiye Pusima." Moscow. Univ. of Washington Library

    Find full reference...
     Fairservis, Walter A., Jr. (197?). The script of the Indus Valley civilization. Scientific American.

    Wallace, A., Wallechinsky, D., & Wallace, I. (1983). The Book of lists #3. New York: Wm. Morrow & Co.

    Wallechinsky, D. & Wallace, I. (1981). The People's almanac #3. New York: Wm. Morrow & Co.

    Wang, William S-Y. (1982?). The Chinese language. Scientific American.

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